Origins of Bharatanatyam

posted on 28/05/2012 by admin

Origins of Bharatanatyam
This is a very popular dance form in South India. It is oldest of all classical dance forms in India. Dance of mind 
& soul. It is extremely traditional and known for its grace, purity, tenderness, staturesque & sculpturesque poses. 
It uplifts the dancer and the beholder to a higher level of spiritual consciousness. The dancer is considered as a 
worshiper, worshiper of the Divine. An embodiment of beauty, charm and gracefulness. 
The general interpretation for the name is Bhava(expression) + Raga (music) + TAla(rhythm) + NATYAM(dance) = Bharatanatyam 
Origin of Bharatanatyam
The Gods & Godesses pleaded Lord Brahma to create another veda which would be simple for the common man
to understand. It is believed that considering this request Lord Brahma created the Panchamaveda, Fifth veda,
Natyaveda, an essence of the other four vedas. It is believed that he has taken pathya (words) form the 
Rigveda, abhinaya (gesture) from the Yajurveda, geet (music and chant) from Samaveda and rasa
(sentiment and emotional element) from Atharvaveda to form the fifth veda, Natyaveda.
After creating this natyaveda, Lord Brahma gave the same to sage Bharata and asked him to popularise this veda on earth. Following the words of Lord Brahma, sage Bharata wrote Natyashastra or the Science of Dramaturgy, a great, 
comprehensive work on the science and technique of Indian drama, dance and music.Bharatanatyam might
have got its name from sage Bharata also.The dancers still follow this work to perform.
There is also another story which says that Godess Parvathi tought this dance form to Usha, daughter of 
Banasura, a demon. Usha taught the same to the Gopikas of the city of Dwaraka, Lord Krishna’s birth place. 
Thus the divine dance form Bharatanatyam was introduced to the mankind. 
In Indian mythology,Lord Shiva is considered as the supreme lord of dance. This divine art form is performed by
Lord Shiva & his wife Goddess Parvathi. The Dance performd by Lord Shiva is known as Tandava, which depicts
his violent nature as the distructor of the universe. The tandava performed with joy is called Ananda Tandava and
performed in violent mood is called Rudra Tandava. There are 7 types of Tandava. Namely Ananda Tandava,
Tripura Tandava, Sandhya Tandava, Samara Tandava, Kaali tandava, Uma Tandava and Gauri Tandava. 
There are few people who believa that there are 16 types of Tandava. Tandava has vigourous, brisk movements.
The dance performed by Goddess Parvathi is known as Lasya, in which the movements are gentle, graceful and 
sometimes erotic also. Some scholars call Lasya as the feminine version of Tandava. Lasya has 2 kinds. Jarita Lasya and Yauvaka Lasya. 
The art form has definitely gone through lot of changes over the years. In olden days it was performed mostly
by female artists. They were called Devadasis, who would perform in the temples. These devadasis were accomplished artists who would sing, dance, play many instruments. They were well worsed in sanskrit & other languages which 
helped them to interpret compositions which they would perform. But this tradition came to an end as the
devadasis lost their position in the society.
Then dance entered the royal courts. Here the artists called Rajanartakis, performed in the courts of kings 
who gave them shelter.Even these were accomplished artists like devadasis. 
The next well-documented period of dance history is far more recent. In the first half of the 19th century the
dance tradition was revitalized and defined anew through the contributions of four talented brothers (known today
as the Tanjore Quartet)Chinniah, Sivanandam, Ponniah and Vadivelu. By coordinating their diverse talents, the
four managed to organize all the basic dance movements of pure dance into a progressive series of lessons 
[adavu chapters]. Each adavu (basic unit of motion) was taught in systematic order and then combined with 
others to produce choreographed sequences based upon the rhythmic contour of a musical composition 
(Krishnamoorthy Pillai). In addition the brothers composed new music specifically for the dance, and introduced
a different sequence of items which integrated the various aspects of dance and music into a carefully 
coordinated, aesthetically sound progression. This infusion of creative energy marks the early 19th century 
as one of the most innovative periods in the history of Indian dance. 
The contribution of Udayshankar, Rukminidevi Arundale and Balasaraswathi, in the 20th century, cannot be
forgotten at this juncture. 
Even though Bharatanatyam has gone through lot of changes, it still has its roots deep into the religious and rich
mythological heritage of India. In the modern day scenario it is performed by both male & female artists. Many
learn as a hobby and few make it as a profession. Whether taken as a hobby or a profession it certainly needs 
lot of practice,concentration and dedication.